Hoklo People

Like the Hakka, the Hoklo people are not one of China’s 55 ethnic minorities but are also just a subgroup of the Han ethnic majority. They are sometimes referred to as Hokkien, Hokuro, Min-nan, or Hokkien Lang people and, in the same vein, their language can be referred to as Hoklo, Hokkien, Fukien, Amoy, Minnan, Min, Fujianese, and Taiwanese.

However, unlike the Hakka, there is no strong cultural identity linking the subgroups of Hoklo people and they have seemingly failed to hold on to any significant cultural traits. Some people are not even aware of their Hoklo heritage and, to this day, there is no standard Chinese term for “Hoklo”. Since many of them intermarried or assimilated with Hakka people or Taiwanese aborigines, the term “Hoklo” became more of a linguistic heritage.

Their language is a branch of Min-nan or “Southern Min” Chinese, which is a dialect that is mutually unintelligible to Eastern Min, Standard Chinese, and Cantonese. They are believed to have originated from lands bordering the Yellow River in northern and central China, much like the Hakka, and settled primarily in southern Fujian province, although communities of Hoklo people can be found in Guangdong and Hainan.

zhangzhou

Nowadays most Hoklo people live in towns and cities, but a few still live in large earthen constructions known as Tulou. These fortress-like buildings were designed by the Hakka and are usually round or square in shape. They can be several stories high and were initially built to protect inhabitants from bandits and wild animals. Evidently the Hoklo knew a good thing when they saw it, because they took to these safe havens immediately!

However, by far the largest constituency of Hoklo people can be found in Taiwan, where they make up 70% of the population and are thus the ethnic majority. Hoklo Taiwanese is a term generally used to mean anyone whose ancestors emigrated from Fujian to Taiwan prior to 1949. In the north and south of Taiwan, there are two marginally different dialects of their language that point to their diverging origins. It is believed that the Hoklo people in the north originated from Quanzhou Prefecture and those in the south originated from Zhangzhou Prefecture. No matter how they got there, the Hoklo Taiwanese have developed their own unique culture that continues to thrive to this day!

 

Get more stories about Hoklo people on our travel: Explore the distinctive Tulou(Earthen Structure)

Victoria Peak

Of all the wonderful tourist attractions on offer in Hong Kong, Victoria Peak is undoubtedly the most iconic. With an elevation of 552 metres (1,811 ft.), it is the highest mountain on Hong Kong Island. Locals and tourists alike flock to the peak every day, making it the most visited attraction in the region. Yet it isn’t the peak itself that attracts so much adoration; it’s the panoramic views from the top. Dazzling skyscrapers and the sparkling Victoria Harbour stretch out beneath you, glittering in the midday sun. At night, a galaxy of multi-coloured lights transforms the urban jungle into a twinkling wonderland. Hong Kong is renowned for having one of the most beautiful cityscapes in the world, and Victoria Peak is the ideal place to appreciate it.

To reach the peak, most visitors take the Peak Tram, which has been in operation for over 100 years and currently ferries an average of 11,000 people to the top every day! Its lower terminus hosts the Peak Tram Historical Gallery, where visitors can learn all about the tram’s history, and its upper terminus ends in the magnificent Peak Tower. This is one of two large complexes atop the peak, the other being the Peak Galleria. Both of them boast viewing decks where visitors can soak in the celebrated scenery, although the Peak Tower’s Sky Terrace 428 charges a small entry fee and views of Victoria Harbour from the Peak Galleria are unfortunately obscured.

Most of the peak is dominated by public parks and luxury residential areas, although the summit is occupied by a radio telecommunications facility and is actually off-limits to the public. With properties regularly selling for over HK$1.8 billion (£170 million), it is the most expensive location to buy real estate in the world! Historically speaking, this area has been attracting interest since the 19th century, when European expatriates quickly discovered that its panoramic view of the city and its temperate climate made it the perfect escape from the oppressive humidity in the rest of Hong Kong.

The sixth Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Richard MacDonnell, famously built his summer residence on the peak in 1868. Tragically MacDonnell’s mansion was destroyed during the Second World War, but its verdant gardens remain and are now open to the public. The Governor evidently inspired a trend in the Hong Kong elite, because soon other houses, such as the Austin Arms and the Eyrie, began cropping up on its expanse. However, the tram service had yet to be developed, so these original residents would have to reach their homes by being carried up and down the steep slopes on sedan chairs. If you thought your job was bad, imagine what it would be like to work as a servant for the Peak’s rich and famous! It wasn’t until 1888 that the Peak Tram finally started operating.

From 1904 until 1947, the peak was designated an exclusive residential area reserved only for expatriates, which is why it’s visibly dominated by colonial architecture. The Peak Tower wasn’t built until 1972 and only contained a café and a restaurant at the time. In 1993, the tower underwent a major redevelopment, and nowadays is a colossal complex with its own Madame Tussauds Wax Museum, Ripley’s Believe It or Not! Odditorium, and observation deck, along with numerous shops and restaurants. Similarly the Peak Tram, which was initially powered by coal-fired steam boilers, was updated into an electrically powered system in 1926.

Modernised though it may be, Victoria Peak still retains its quaint charm and provides a welcome escape from the bustling metropolis of Central. With its lush greenery, tranquil public parks, and breath-taking views, it represents a little slice of peace and quiet for the locals of Hong Kong. Whether it’s hiking, shopping, or simply people-watching, it has an inimitable attraction that draws people from all walks of life. In short, if you’re in Hong Kong, it’s sure to pique your interest!

 

Hong Kong

As one of the most densely populated places in the world, Hong Kong evidently holds a particular fascination for people from across the globe. Perhaps it’s the fact that, with over 1,000 skyscrapers and more buildings over 150 metres (500 ft.) than any other city, it has one of the tallest and most magical skylines in the world. In Hong Kong, more people live and work above the 14th floor than anywhere else on Earth, making it the world’s most vertical city. Unfortunately, it is also notorious internationally for having the most unaffordable housing, so don’t get your heart set on a Hong Kong apartment!

The skyline is considered so spectacular that it’s earned Hong Kong the nickname the “Pearl of the Orient”, but the region’s actual name has rather different connotations. The Chinese name for Hong Kong, known as “Xiānggǎng” (香港), literally translates to mean “Fragrant Harbour” or “Incense Harbour”. Some historians believe that this may refer to the sweet taste of the water in the estuaries of the Pearl River, while others argue that it derives from the incense that was made and stored in factories along the coast north of Kowloon. Regardless of its origin, the name clearly indicates the importance of maritime activities in Hong Kong’s history.

Officially the region is made up of three parts: Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, and the New Territories, together with 230 offshore islands. Before the mid-19th century, Hong Kong was an area of little significance, inhabited only by a small population of Tanka fishermen and Hakka charcoal burners. Compared to other regions in China, it lacked fertile soil and a stable fresh-water supply, and was rumoured to be a haunt of pirates.

However, in 1821, British merchants soon discovered that its natural harbour made a safe and sheltered base where they could anchor their opium-carrying vessels. These merchants swiftly realised the great commercial and strategic value that Hong Kong held. The area where they first landed became the Victoria urban district, and is now the centre for administrative and economic activities in Hong Kong. Victoria Peak and the stately colonial mansions that surround it are now popular tourist attractions.

After the First (1839-1842) and Second (1856-1860) Opium Wars, Britain forced China to sign a series of treaties that granted them control of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula. In addition, the New Territories and offshore islands were leased to Britain in 1898 for a period of 99 years. Thereafter, Chinese immigrants frequently flocked to Hong Kong in droves during times of crisis, because it was heavily protected by foreign powers. It was soon established as a place of shelter, and its population grew rapidly. Unfortunately, its status as a safe haven was not to last, as it was occupied by the Japanese for over three and a half years during the Second World War (1939-1945).

During the late 1970s, with the 1997 expiration date on the New Territories lease fast approaching, the Chinese government began to argue that the whole of Hong Kong should be returned to China, since the Hong Kong-British agreements counted as unequal treaties that required resolution. From 1982 to 1984, the British government negotiated with the Chinese and eventually the Chinese-British joint declaration was signed. It stated that all Hong Kong territories, including Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula, would be returned to Chinese control.

On July 1st 1997, after 156 years under British colonial rule, Hong Kong was officially transferred to the People’s Republic of China and renamed the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. This new name indicated that, although Hong Kong now belonged to China, it was still allowed to maintain its capitalist economy and retain a large degree of political autonomy, excepting only in matters of foreign policy and defence. Nowadays, this is commonly referred to as the “one country, two systems” concept.

Its unusual history means that Hong Kong is frequently described as a place where “East meets West”. Whether its colonial architecture built according to feng shui[1] principles or dim sum restaurants sat elbow-to-elbow with fancy French bistros, Hong Kong represents a perfect fusion of Eastern and Western influences. Unlike other parts of China, English is listed as one of the official languages in Hong Kong, so a much larger portion of the population is fluent in both English and Cantonese[2]. Coupled with the incredible public transport system, this makes getting around Hong Kong a breeze for first-time visitors!

Geographically speaking, Hong Kong benefits from a humid, subtropical climate, and most of its terrain is hilly or mountainous. Average temperatures range from a sweltering 29 °C (84 °F) in summer to an unbelievably mild 16 °C (60 °F) in winter. Be forewarned, this warm weather comes with a price! From June to October, the area is buffeted by an average of five to six typhoons every year and strong torrential downpours dominate the rainy season.

While the region is famed for its urban development, Hong Kong’s mountainous terrain and subtropical climate mean it’s also a haven for nature lovers! Lush plant-life thrives in the region and there are plenty of public parks to simply get lost in. These slices of greenery are the perfect place to practice tai chi, take a gentle hike or a leisurely bike ride, indulge in a spot of kite-flying, or enjoy a few water sports.

That being said, Hong Kong is best known for the myriad of cultural activities that take place there every year. The Hong Kong Heritage Museum, the Hong Kong Museum of Art, and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra host numerous annual events that never fail to dazzle the crowds. And, if you’re in the mood for a bit of frivolous fun, there’s always Hong Kong Disneyland!

 

[1] Feng Shui: This theory is based on the premise that the specific placement of certain buildings or objects will bring good luck.

[2] Cantonese was once considered to be a dialect of Chinese, but is now widely regarded as a language in its own right.

The Yin Mountains

Forming part of the eastern border along the Gobi Desert, the Yin Mountains stretch for over 1,000 kilometres (631 mi) from Inner Mongolia to northern Hebei province. At points they rise to a mighty 2,180 metres (7,152 ft.) in height, while at others they drop to a modest 1,500 metres (4,921 ft.). Their northern slope is comparatively gentle, but the southern slope is steep and forms a sharp natural barrier against the plain below it. Yet it’s not the mountain range’s height that makes it so special. The range is home to over ten thousand cliff paintings known as petroglyphs, where the rock’s surface has been incised, carved, or abraded to form a primitive work of art. Since prehistoric times, these mountains and their surroundings have served as the muse for countless individuals.

These petroglyphs can be separated into four main sets: the first and oldest set, which dates back to the Xia (c. 2100-1600 BC), Shang (c. 1600-1046 BC), and Zhou (c. 1045-256 BC) dynasties; the second set, which were carved by Xiongnu nomads and range from the Spring and Autumn Period (c. 771-476 BC) to the Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD); the third set, which portrays distinctly Turkish characteristics and dates back to between the Jin Dynasty (265-420 AD) and the Tang Dynasty (618-907); and the final set, which were executed by Mongolian tribes sometime from the Song Dynasty (960-1279) to the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912).

Some of the oldest rock paintings were examined as early as the 5th century by the geologist Li Daoyuan of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386–535). While his findings represent the earliest record of the paintings, they weren’t formally surveyed until 1976. From then on, experts, scholars, and tourists have been drawn to the mountain range, tempted by the opportunity to catch a glimpse of our prehistoric origins. The paintings provide an invaluable insight into the lifestyle, beliefs, and customs of the ancient nomads that once roamed these open plains.

The paintings themselves are scattered throughout the mountain range, with the largest concentration being located on Mount Hei. The early paintings are dominated by scenes of hunting and feature a wide range of animals, including goats, sheep, antelopes, elks, moose, deer, horses, camels, wild ox, wild boar, rabbits, foxes, wolves, tigers, leopards, and even ostriches! Many of these species have since disappeared from the region, but these paintings act as a testament to their presence.

On many of the cliff-faces, a certain pattern emerges regarding the distribution of the paintings. While scenes of hunting and wild animals are found mostly towards the base or mid-point of the cliff, those of deities, celestial bodies, or constellations tend to be engraved high on steep cliffs or on giant rocks near valleys. This demonstrates an early veneration for religious figures and implies that, as with many primitive peoples, the nomads of the Yin Mountains associated the life-giving properties of water with the gods.

These early paintings were predominantly chiselled or ground into the rock using basic metal or stone tools, meaning they are often uneven in depth and density. The rock paintings of later periods are characterised by thinner and more superficial lines, which were formed by literally scratching into the rock-face using much slimmer utensils. As time went on and the paintings became more sophisticated, so too did their themes. Scenes of hunting are replaced by tableaus of herding and grazing domestic animals; the faces of anthropomorphic animal gods are gradually superseded by the distinctly human features of Buddhist deities; and simple skirmishes between different tribes become spectacles of brutal warfare. As society continues to advance at a rapid pace, these paintings serve as a poignant reminder of mankind’s humble beginnings.

The Wang Family Compound

The Wang Family Compound may not be the most popular of the Shanxi Grand Compounds, but it’s actually four times the size of the renowned Qiao Family Compound and even rivals the Forbidden City in its magnitude! Like many of the Shanxi Grand Compounds, it is located in Lingshi County, approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the ancient city of Pingyao. Stretching over an area of 150,000 square metres (1614587 sq. ft.), its vast complex consists of six castle-like courtyards, six lanes, and one street. In-keeping with its legendary size, its five main courtyards were designed to symbolically represent the five lucky animals according to traditional Chinese culture: the Dragon, the Phoenix, the Tortoise, the Qilin (Chinese Unicorn), and the Tiger. In short, you could say the Wang family were living in the belly of the beast!

Like many of the Jin merchant families from this region, the Wang family began as simple farmers and eventually graduated to becoming small time businessmen. During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), they expanded their business gradually and hoped that, ultimately, their efforts would grant their successors the opportunity to gain official positions in the government. By the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912), the family had reached the peak of their prosperity and over 100 members of the Wang family were high-ranking officials! Unfortunately all this good work would be undone towards the end of the dynasty, as future generations of the Wang family lacked their forebears’ ambition. After having lived in this grand mansion for 27 generations, the last members of the Wang family left in 1996 and it was opened to the public in 1997.

Nowadays, only two of the colossal courtyards and one of the ancestral halls are open to tourists, comprising a total of 123 smaller courtyards and over 1,100 rooms. The complex has been separated into three main areas: the Red Gate Castle; the Gao Jia Ya or East Courtyard; and the Chongning Bao. Built from 1739 to 1793, the Red Gate Castle covers a colossal 25,000 square metres (269,098 sq. ft.) and contains 29 courtyards. Its name is derived from its characteristic red gate, which is the only one in the compound, and its layout is designed to look like the Chinese character “王” (Wáng), which means “king”. It should come as no surprise that this character happens to be the Wang’s family name. Talk about making something in your image! It thus seems quite fitting that the Wang Museum, which details the history of the family, should be found in the Red Gate Castle.

The Gao Jia Ya, which was constructed between 1796 and 1811, may not be as expansive as the Red Gate Castle, but it boasts some of the finest woodcuttings, stone-carvings, and brick sculptures in the compound. It is a somewhat labyrinthine structure, consisting of multifarious courtyards and connecting alleyways. Nowadays it is also used to exhibit a lavish collection of items that once belonged to the Wang family. Similarly, the Chongning Bao is now used primarily to display elegant paintings and woodcuttings by the celebrated artist Li Qun. On August 18th of every year, a Tourism Festival is held in the Wang Family Compound, where visitors have the opportunity to watch and take part in traditional folk activities. It’s the ideal time to embrace the ancient culture in which this grand work of architecture was conceived.

 

Find more stories about Wang Family Compounds and Jin Merchants on our tour: Explore Chinese Culture through the Ages

The Qiao Family Compound

The Qiao Family Compound is widely thought to be the most famous and popular Shanxi Grand Compound in the province of Shanxi, largely thanks to its starring role in Zhang Yimou’s moving drama Raise the Red Lantern. These magnificent courtyard houses were originally built during the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1912) dynasties by prosperous families hailing from Shanxi province. Located in the village of Qiaojiabao approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the historic city of Pingyao, the Qiao Family Compound was originally known as Zai Zhong Tang (在中堂) and was constructed in 1756 by a renowned merchant named Qiao Guifa, who made his fortune selling tea and tofu.

However, the Qiao family wouldn’t reach its zenith until the third generation, when Qiao Zhiyong became the head of the family. Qiao Zhiyong was an astute businessman and, during his lifetime, he built up an unparalleled mercantile empire in the province of Shanxi. When he was head of the family, the Qiao clan controlled over 200 shops located throughout the country, including a number of prototype banks, pawnshops, teahouses, and granaries. Of the three great expansions that the Qiao Family Compound underwent, it was Qiao Zhiyong who was responsible for the largest and most extravagant. He was considered such an intriguing figure in Shanxi province that, in 2006, a television series was made about his life, known as Qiao’s Grand Courtyard. In short, he got more than just his fifteen minutes of fame!

Yet it wasn’t just Qiao Zhiyong’s business acumen that enabled the compound to flourish. During the Qing Dynasty, a military coalition known as the Eight-Nation Alliance was set up in response to the violent Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901) in China. Included in this alliance were the Empire of Japan, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the French Third Republic, the United States, the German Empire, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1900, the alliance sent troops to liberate their embassy in Beijing, which had been under siege. Once they had resolved the issue with the embassy, they decided to invade and occupy the city of Beijing. Talk about taking liberties!

 

In response, the governor-general of Shanxi province ordered that all foreigners in the region were to be killed on site. Seven Italian sisters, who were working in the country as missionaries, managed to escape the ensuing panic and eventually arrived at the Qiao Family Compound. They begged Qiao Zhiyong for protection and he allowed them to hide within the compound, which ended up saving their lives. In honour of his benevolence towards their people, the Italian embassy awarded him with an Italian flag, which he proudly displayed within the compound.

Many years later, during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), the Japanese army invaded Shanxi province and left destruction in their wake. However, the presence of this flag meant that Japanese troops chose to leave the Qiao Family Compound unharmed, since Italy was one of Japan’s political allies at the time. Having been spared a gruesome fate, the compound was occupied by the Qiao family right up until 1985, when it was converted into a museum.

After numerous renovations in its 160-year-long history, it now stretches over a staggering 8,724 square metres (93,904 sq. ft.) and is comprised of 6 large courtyards, 20 smaller courtyards, one ancestral temple, and 313 rooms. Its layout is designed to resemble the Chinese character “囍”, which means “happiness” and is meant to symbolically express the Qiao family’s hope for a bright future. Some of its courtyards are flanked at their entrance by fearsome stone guardian lions, while others have their eaves delicately painted with tableaus of Chinese folk legends or their gates engraved with beautiful patterns.

Each courtyard consists of a principle room, which was reserved for the host and is distinguished by its tiled roof. The side rooms, which were designated for the guests and servants, have brick roofs instead. These differences in style helped to break up the monotony of the architecture, whilst simultaneously indicating the hierarchy of the compound’s residents. A special corridor on each roof enabled guards to patrol the entire compound with ease. Not only that; the compound is entirely surrounded by 10-metre (33 ft.) high walls, which endow it with a fortress-like appearance from the outside. After all, a man’s home is his castle, and castles need round-the-clock protection!

 

Wandering through the compound’s many rooms and corridors is a banquet of delights, resplendent with some of the finest wood carvings, brick carvings, stone carvings, murals, and wall sculptures in northern China. Nowadays it houses over 2,000 cultural relics, including porcelain, silk embroidery, paintings, and divine furnishings that are sure to transport you back to the luxurious lifestyle of the Qiao family. These lavish decorations are sure to entice you, while the various exhibitions on the history of the Qiao family and the business customs of the Qing Dynasty will provide you with an invaluable insight into life in ancient China. Just don’t stay too long, or you may never want to leave!

 

Nanchang

As the capital of Jiangxi, Nanchang represents the cultural and economic heart of the province. Yet the city itself has something of a chequered past. Most of the time, it remained an urban centre of little significance but, at times, it found itself the stage for some of the most pivotal events in Chinese history. It was founded as early as 201 BC and was given the name Nanchang or “Southern Flourishing”, which was derived from a statement by Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) about the importance of expanding his influence in southern China. However, it wasn’t until the Tang Dynasty (618-907) that the city saw its first major developments.

In 653, the magnificent Tengwang or “Prince Teng” Pavilion was constructed and, although it would find itself destroyed and rebuilt several times, it soon came to be known as one of the Three Great Towers in southern China. This was in part due to a poem written by the illustrious Wang Bo in 675, known as “Preface to the Pavilion of Prince Teng”. This literary masterpiece extols the beauty of the pavilion and helped skyrocket the city into national fame. Wang’s work is living proof that the pen is truly mightier than the sword!

In 959, Nanchang experienced another spot of good fortune when it was made the southern capital of the Kingdom of Southern Tang (937–976). However, as the old saying goes, all good things come to an end! Towards the close of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), the city became a battleground between Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), and a local warlord named Chen Youliang. Similarly, at the start of the 16th century, it was used as a power base from which Zhu Chenhao, the Prince of Ning, launched a rebellion against the Ming government.

The tragedy deepened when the city was further damaged during the brutal Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) and, in the late 19th century, its commercial importance began to decline as overland routes were gradually replaced by coastal steamship services. Yet this was all set to change on August 1st 1927. The city became the site of a series of revolts, led by pro-communist Kuomintang[1] officers and organised by the Chinese Communist Party, known as the Nanchang Uprising.

Although they only managed to hold the city for a few days, the soldiers involved provided a core of troops and a method of organisation which eventually inspired the founding of the People’s Liberation Army. For this reason, the Communist Party often regard Nanchang as “the place where the People’s Liberation Army was born”, and the city itself holds a coveted place in the history of Communist China. It is now a popular destination for Red Tourism, but the city has so much more to offer than that!

Situated along the right bank of the Gan River and just 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Lake Poyang, the largest freshwater lake in China, it is an ideal base for those wishing to embrace the natural beauty of Jiangxi province or experience the migration of some half a million birds that flock to Lake Poyang every year. During winter, the lake is a focal bird-watching spot, as it becomes home to a substantial number of rare Siberian cranes.

If you’re more interested in the city’s ancient history, then the Tengwang Pavilion and the Bada Shanren Memorial Hall are must-see attractions. Although the most recent manifestation of the pavilion was built during 1989 after it was virtually destroyed in 1926, it follows the Song Dynasty (960-1279) style and was based off of Song paintings of the pavilion at the time. These same paintings also served as the inspiration for the corner-towers in the Forbidden City, which were designed to imitate the Tengwang Pavilion. Talk about one serious claim to fame!

From one famous work of art to another, the Bada Shanren Memorial Hall is dedicated to the celebrated painter Zhu Da, who adopted the pseudonym Bada Shanren during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) in order to hide the fact that he was a descendant of the Ming Dynasty prince Zhu Quan. The memorial hall itself is based on the design of the Qingyunpu Taoist Temple, which is where Zhu Da took refuge during the early years of the Qing Dynasty.

For over 300 years, his ink wash paintings have been regarded as some of the finest masterpieces of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Walking through the tranquil gardens of the complex and marvelling at his delicate brushwork, you’ll be sure to lose yourself in the beauty of Nanchang. That being said, if you’re after a little more excitement, you can always take a turn on the 160-metre (525 ft.) tall Ferris wheel known as the Star of Nanchang!

 

 

[1] Kuomintang: Also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party. They were the ruling party from 1928 until their defeat at the hands of the Communists in 1949. They retreated to Taiwan, where they still play an active political role.

The Tian Shan Mountains

In Chinese, “Tian Shan” literally translates to mean “Heavenly Mountain” or “Mountain of Heaven”. With its glittering snow-capped peaks, sparkling lakes, and emerald-hued forests, this mountain range certainly lives up to its name! Stretching for over 2,500 kilometres (1,500 mi) across Central Asia, it crosses the countries of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. Its diverse landscape, rich biodiversity, and cultural significance meant it was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 2013.

According to the folk religion of Tengrism, the mountain range is a profoundly sacred place and its second highest peak, the 7,010-metre (23,000 ft.) high Khan Tengri, literally means “King of the Heavens”. Its highest point, known as Jengish Chokusu or “Victory Peak”, towers in at a height of 7,439 metres (24,406 ft.), meaning it is just 1,406 metres (4,613 ft.) shy of Mount Everest and the 60th tallest mountain the world. Together they are classed as the two most northerly peaks over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft.) in the world. It might not be the greatest claim to fame, but they will forever be the Kings in the North!

Since the mountain range is one of the longest in Central Asia, it is often separated into a number of smaller ranges for the purpose of ease, including the Barkol Mountains near the city of Hami and the Borohoro Mountains just south of Ürümqi. Within China, it is bounded by the Dzungarian Basin to the north and the Tarim Basin to the south, meaning it forms a natural dividing line within the region of Xinjiang. The mountain range is home to one of Xinjiang’s most popular and celebrated attractions: Tianchi or Heavenly Lake. Resting within a valley on the northern slope of Bogda Peak, this alpine lake is formed from melted snow trickling down from the icy tips of the mountains. Its crystal clear waters reflect the snow-capped peaks above it and the emerald-hued spruces that surround it, creating a breath-taking tableau.

The mountain range’s ethereal beauty is reflected in the many legends about it, as it is rumoured to be the home of the peach tree of immortality, which is fiercely guarded by the Chinese folk deity Xiwangmu or “Queen Mother of the West”. Magical peaches may be the stuff of myth, but the lower slopes are blanked in ancient forests formed of wild walnut, pistachio, apricot, and apple trees. While you may not discover the secret to everlasting life, a trip to the Tian Shan Mountains is sure to be fruitful!

Depending on the altitude, the forests alternate between hardy steppes and lush meadows, with dense clutches of maple trees, junipers, aspens, birches, poplars, and numerous other species. Mixed grasses and wildflowers blanket the alpine meadows on the northern slopes, while the southern slopes are characterised by much sparser vegetation. Wolves, bears, wild boars, foxes, ermines, badgers, mountain goats, deer, and mountain sheep all roam these forests, but the range’s prized inhabitant is far more elusive: the rare and critically endangered snow leopard. Mountaineers who work as guides on the mountain range say they’re lucky to catch a glimpse of this mysterious creature even once in a lifetime!

A myriad of China’s ethnic minorities inhabit the region surrounding the Tian Shan Mountains, including the Uyghurs, the Kyrgyz, the Kazakhs, the Mongols, and the Uzbeks. Alongside the majesty of the mountains, many of the Uyghur, Kyrgyz, and Kazakh settlements have become tourist attractions in of themselves, with crowds of visitors flocking there every year to witness traditional festivals, sample local cuisine, and enjoy their unique cultures. From lively horse races to outdoor lamb roasts, a trip to the Tian Shan Mountains would be simply incomplete without a stay in one of these vibrant settlements.

 

We will meet the the Tian Shan Mountains on the travel: Explore the Silk Road in China

The Helan Mountains

Mount Helan01

Flanked by unforgiving desert to the west and irrigated farmland known as the Yinchuan Plain to the east, the Helan Mountains form the border between Inner Mongolia and Ningxia. This colossal mountain range stretches for approximately 200 kilometres (124 mi) from north to south, with the Yellow River flowing northward parallel to it. While it averages at about 2,000 metres (6,562 ft.) in altitude, its highest peak is a staggering 3,556 metres (11,667 ft.) tall. To put that into perspective, it’s nearly three times the size of Ben Nevis in Scotland!

Yet the range’s spectacular height is not its only claim to fame. Over 10,000 rock carvings dating from the Neolithic Period (c. 8500-2100 BC) to the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1045-256 BC) are scattered throughout the mountains, many of which are over 3,000 to 10,000 years old! The main concentration of carvings can be found at Helankou, a cavernous gorge that cuts north-west through the mountain chain. While the Helan Mountains acted as natural boundary between the nomadic pastoralists in the north and the sedentary farmers to the south, Helankou represented one of the view places where their diverse lifestyles met.

Mount Helan 02The Helankou Rock Engravings Park and the nearby Yinchuan World Rock Art Museum are the ideal place to discover how these ancient peoples used rock carvings to celebrate and immortalise their simple way of life. The park is the only place where the public is allowed to view the rock carvings, which are usually concentrated in clusters about 10 metres (33 ft.) above the valley base. The engravings themselves are separated into three types: human figures, animals, and symbols.

The human figures typically portray scenes of daily life, such as hunting, herding, making sacrificial offerings to deities, battling, dancing, and procreation. The animal engravings depict creatures that these ancient people either farmed or came across, including tigers, leopards, sika deer, sheep, cattle, horses, and camels. They have provided researchers with invaluable insight into the kind of animal species that once populated the mountains. The symbols tend to be much more complicated and are mainly mask-like faces imbued with a deeper meaning, the most obvious of which is a sun-shaped mask representing the Sun God.

Baisikou, Mount HelanThat being said, while the rock carvings may be simple in design, the explanation behind them is relatively speculative. Many historians believe that they may have held some kind of shamanic[1] significance, particularly with regards to the symbols, while others posit that they are of a less spiritual and more documentary nature. Regardless of their origins, these fascinating carvings allow visitors to engage with ancient history in a meaningful and palpable way. Other nearby attractions include the Suyukou Forest Reserve, a vast woodland area filled with unusual rock formations, and Gunzhong Pass  (Rolling Bell Pass), a delightful summer resort designed for the avid hiker.

After all that hiking and sightseeing, you’re bound to be a little thirsty. Fortunately, the Helan Mountains are one of the main centres for the production of wine! Since wines from Ningxia have gained a certain prestige and popularity in China, companies are monopolising on the opportunity by setting up wineries on the mountain range’s eastern base. Whether it’s a robust red or a dry white, your trip to the Helan Mountains is sure to leave you wining!

 

 

[1] Shamanism: The practice of attempting to reach altered states of consciousness in order to communicate with the spirit world and channel energy from it into the real world. This can only be done by specialist practitioners known as shaman.

 

 

 

Nanping

nanping

When you look at Nanping, it’s hard to believe that this sleepy little village was once the site of two major battles, the home of the “10,000 silver purses”, and the backdrop for a handful of blockbuster movies. Yet there’s more to this rural slice of paradise than meets the eye! The nearby Nanping Mountain served as a battlefield during the Three Kingdoms Period (220-280 AD), but the area itself wouldn’t be settled until much later. Towards the end of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), the village was established by the Ye clan, who had immigrated there from nearby Qimen.

During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), two other merchant families known as the Li and Cheng clans decided to settle in the village, which was a rarity as most villages were made up of just one clan during imperial times. And it seems that, though two may have been company, three was definitely a crowd in Nanping!

The success of these three families is often attributed to their competitiveness, as an abnormal number of villagers went on to become wealthy merchants, imperial officials, and learned scholars. Their accomplishments are living proof that a little healthy competition can go a long way! Throughout the Ming and Qing (1644-1912) dynasties, these families built glorious mansions, private schools, and ancestral halls as a testament to their fortune.

nanping old hotelTheir prosperity was so renowned that the 20 families living in the village came to be known as “the 10,000 silver purses”. Even the frequent peasant uprisings during the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom[1] (1851-1864) weren’t enough to shake the foundations of this tiny village.   Unfortunately, when the Qing Dynasty finally collapsed and the imperial regime with it, the families in Nanping fell on hard times. Though their fortuitous streak may have been curtailed, their magnificent architecture was spared from damage by warfare and looting, and remains well-preserved as a monument to their former glory.

Nowadays the village is still inhabited by over 1,000 people from the Ye, Cheng, and Li clans, as well as a handful of outside families, and over 300 of its buildings date back to the Ming and Qing dynasties. These stunning mansions, with their white-washed walls and coal black roofs, are dotted throughout a maze of 72 lanes that zigzag throughout Nanping. A stretch of ancient woods, known as Wansonglin, surrounds the village and only adds to its mystical quality.

The village’s spectacular architecture is punctuated by eight ancestral halls, of which Xuzhi Hall and Kuiguang Hall are considered the most well-preserved. Both belong to the Ye family and, while Kuiguang Hall is an impressive 490 years old, Xuzhi Hall is a staggering 530 years old!

Xuzhi Hall is divided into three parts: the front hall, which was used for recreational activities; the main hall, which served as the centre for sacrificial ceremonies; and the back hall, where the memorial tablet to the ancestors is enshrined. This hall served as the main backdrop for the critically acclaimed film Ju Dou, directed by Zhang Yimou and starring the exceptional Gong Li. Many of the sets from the film have been maintained so, if you ever wanted to be in a movie, now’s your chance! Similarly Kuiguang Hall, with its smooth marble ornaments and elaborately decorated interior, was used as a set for the Oscar-winning film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, directed by Ang Lee.

Other places of historical note include Banchun Garden, West Garden, and Baoyi Study. Banchun Garden was built during the Qing Dynasty by a wealthy merchant from the Ye family to serve as a private school for his children. The three spacious study rooms, half-moon shaped courtyard, and fragrant abundance of colourful flowers will make you wish you could go back to school! West Garden was also built as a study room but was tragically destroyed, leaving behind only a few ruins and a handful of multi-coloured peonies, plum trees, and towering bamboo grasses.

Yet by far the most poignant is the story of Baoyi Study, which was built by Li Huomei of the Li clan. Li had wanted to be a scholar but was only able to study for two years before he was forced to return home and work, as his family were very poor. He became a merchant, laboured diligently and eventually amassed a great fortune, which he used to build three private schools for the local children. As the old saying goes: “children are our future”!

 

[1] Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: An oppositional state in China that was formed from 1851 to 1864 and controlled some parts of southern China during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912).

 

Nanping is one of the many wonderful stops on our tour: Explore the Ancient Chinese Villages in the Huizhou Region